Chinese President Xi Jinping: Biography, Early Life, Career and Facts
|President Xi Jinping. Photo: CNBC|
Who is Xi Jinping?
Born in 1953 to a Chinese Communist Party (CCP) leader, Xi Jinping worked his way up the party ranks to become a major player in the Chinese Politburo.
By 2013, Xi was elected General Secretary of the Communist Party, Chair of the Military Commission and President of the People’s Republic of China. Although he earned criticism for human rights violations and disruptive economic regulations, Xi also continued the country's rise as a global superpower. His name and philosophy was added to the party constitution in 2017, and the following year he successfully pushed for the abolition of presidential term limits, according to Biography.
Xi was born June 15, 1953, the son of a well-placed Chinese Communist Party leader, Xi Zhongxun, a former comrade of Communist China’s founder Mao Tse-tung. Considered a “princeling” — someone destined to rise within the government due to family connections — Xi’s destiny was altered when his father was purged from power in 1962.
Xi Jinping Childhood and Early Life
Xi Jinping was born on 15 June 1953, in Beijing, China, to Xi Zhongxun and Qi Xin. He has two elder sisters, Qiaoqiao and An'an.
After the founding of PRC, his father held several posts, such as party propaganda chief and vice chairperson of the 'National People's Congress.' While occasionally dismissed as a princeling, Xi Jinping’s journey to the top was not an easy one.
In 1962, Xi’s father was removed from his position of vice-premier and later imprisoned. Subsequently, Xi was sent to the rural village of Liangjiahe to work and live among the locals, with whom he was very popular.
While in Liangjiahe, he lived in a typical cave-like dwelling, fetched water from a well, and subsisted mainly on rice gruel.
After seven years, he went to 'Tsinghua University' in the capital city of Beijing to study chemical engineering. 'Tsinghua University' is known for producing much of China’s governing elite.
Throughout his youth, Xi tried to join the 'Communist Party' several times. He was consistently rejected due to his father’s broken relationship with the party, said the Famous People.
|Undated photo on the book-shelf of President Xi Jinping shows him hand in hand with his mother, Qi Xin, walking in a park. Photo: CCTV|
Xi Jinping Career
*Xi Jinping, Han nationality, is a native of Fuping County, Shaanxi Province. He was born in 1953, entered the work force in 1969, joined the CYLC in 1971 and joined the CPC in 1974, according to China Vitae.
*Xi has served in four provinces during his government and Party career: Shaanxi, Hebei, Fujian and Zhejiang. He has held Party positions in the CPC Fuzhou City Committee, and in 1990 he became president of the Party school in Fuzhou City. In 1999 he was elected vice-governor of Fujian province, then governor a year later. In 2002 he took up senior government and Party positions in Zhejiang Province.
* In 2007 he became a member of the Standing Committee of the Politburo Bureau of the 17th CPC Central Committee and Chairman of 17th CPC Central Committee Party Building Leading Small Group. He is also the President of the Party School of the CPC Central Committee.
*In 2008, he became Vice-President of the People's Republic of China. In 2010 he became Vice-Chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission and Vice-Chairman, Central Military Commission of the PRC.
*In 2012 he became General Secretary of the 18th CPC Central Committee a member of the Standing Committee of the Politburo of the 18th CPC Central Committee and Chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission. In 2013 Xi was elected Chairman of the PRC Central Military Commission and President of China. In 2014 Xi became head of China's new national security commission.
*In 2017 Xi became Head of the CPC Central Committee's Central Commission for Integrated Military and Civilian Development. He was also named as a delegate to 19th CPC National Congress. As of 2017 Xi is also General Secretary of the 19th CPC Central Committee a member of the Standing Committee of the Politburo of the 19th CPC Central Committee and Chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission.
Among his writings is 'The Governance of China,' a compilation of political philosophy, released in 2014 by 'ICP Intercultural Press.' It ranks among the top 50 in the ‘politics and government—Asian’ category of ‘Amazon’ rankings.
In the same year, 'Shanghai Jiao Tong University Press' published 'Approachable: The Charm of Xi Jinping’s Words' – a collection of quotes by President Xi, as reported by The Famous People.
Awards and Achievements
President Xi Jinping was honored by the Cuban government in 2014 with the 'Order of José Marti,' the highest honor Cuba can confer. Named after a revered revolutionary and writer, this award was given in recognition of Xi’s efforts to strengthen Cuban-Chinese ties, and to strengthen the socialist cause.
Personal Life and Legacy
In 1987, he married folk singer Peng Liyuan. She is renowned for her performance on state television. She is also popular as a fashion trend-setter. In addition, she holds the rank of General in the 'People’s Liberation Army.'
In 1992, the couple had their only child, a daughter named Xi Mingze. She received her college education from 'Harvard University.' She has been maintaining a low profile since her graduation.
Powers and Functions of the President of China
The President of the People’s Republic of China performs all the ceremonial functions as the head of the state. He also performs several other functions which the Constitution has allocated to him, Political Science Notes reported.
Upon the recommendations of the Standing Committee of the NPC, the President confers state medals and titles of honour on the people as well as grants special pardons to the criminals. Acting on the basis of the decisions of the National People’s Congress or its Standing Committee, the President proclaims martial law, a state of war and issues mobilization orders.
All such orders are issued by the President in accordance with the decisions of the National People’s Congress or its Standing Committee.
As Head of the State, the President appoints and recalls Chinese ambassadors and other diplomatic agents in foreign countries. He receives the ambassadors of foreign countries in China. All these functions are performed by him upon the recommendations of the Standing Committee of the NPC.
All the treaties concluded by the government with the foreign countries are ratified by the President. He has the power to abrogate any treaty if the circumstances so demand. These functions are again performed by the President under the advice of the Standing Committee.
In discharging his functions, the President can seek the assistance of the Vice-President. Article 82 of the Constitution states that the Vice-President “may exercise such parts of the functions and powers of the President as may be deputed by the President.” As such, he can be assigned any work by the President.
A primary responsibility of the President is to recommend the name of the person who is to be appointed as the Premier of China. The National People’s Congress can appoint the Premier only upon the recommendation made by the President of the PRC.
Facts You Might Not Know About Xi Jinping
1. Xi Jinping was born in 1953 in Shaanxi province, said US News.
2. Xi's father was Xi Zhongxun, who served as China's deputy prime minister and was an early ally of Mao Zedong. The elder Xi was often at odds with the government, facing persecution and jail during the Cultural Revolution and then receiving rehabilitation in the 1970s.
3. Being the son of Xi Zhongxun, Xi Jinping is considered a "princeling," a term used to describe descendants of prominent senior Communist Party officials. "Princeling" also is occasionally used in a derogatory fashion to refer to people in China who benefit from nepotism and cronyism.
4. As a youngster, Xi spent six years as a manual laborer on an agricultural commune, cementing ties to local peasants.
5. In 1985, Jinping spent two weeks in Muscatine, Iowa, as part of a Chinese delegation looking into farming technology, as reported by CNN. The visit shaped his view of the U.S., and he returned again in 2012, as China's vice president.
6. Xi studied chemical engineering at Beijing's Tsinghua University, and also holds a doctorate in law.
7. Xi's wife, Peng Liyuan, is a well-known former contemporary folk singer.
|Chinese President Xi Jinping and his wife Peng Liyuan. Photo: Getty Images|
8. Xi was elected president of China on March 14, 2013. During his time in power, Xi has embraced the teachings of Confucius more than any other Chinese Communist leader.
9. During Xi's time as president, Chinese authorities have increasingly cracked down on dissent at a level unseen in China in more than two decades.
10. At the 2017 World Economic Forum in Davos, Xi positioned his country as a leader in economic globalization during a time of increased talk of economic protectionism.
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