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PROFESSOR AHN KYONG HWAN:

Vietnam owns sufficient evidences of its sovereignty over the Paracel and Spratly archipelagos

09:45 | 19/05/2020

As of April 10, the Aju Business Daily (Korea) (https://m.ajunews.com/view/20200409180043091) published an article on Vietnam's sovereignty issue in the Hoang Sa (Paracel) and Truong Sa (Spratly) archipelagos written by Professor Ahn Kyong Hwan – A lecturer of Chosun University, the president of the Korean Association of Vietnamese Studies, also the Chairman of the Research Association of Vietnam Studies in Korea, the Vice Chairman of the Korea-Vietnam Cultural Exchange Association in Gwangju, the Advisor of the Korea-Vietnam Economic and Cultural Association in Seoul.

vietnam owns sufficient evidences of its sovereignty over the paracel and spratly archipelagos Vietnam protests against China's sovereign claims over Paracel and Spratly Islands
vietnam owns sufficient evidences of its sovereignty over the paracel and spratly archipelagos Japan voices concerns over China's establishment of districts on Paracel and Spratly islands
vietnam owns sufficient evidences of its sovereignty over the paracel and spratly archipelagos People’s Committee of Hoang Sa condemns China’s district formations on East Sea archipelagos
vietnam owns sufficient evidences of its sovereignty over the paracel and spratly archipelagos
The article: The sovereignty issue of the Paracel and Spratly Islands published in The ajudaily.com (Korea)

The Thoi Dai (Vietnam Times) would like to translate this article briefly to our beloved readers:

Recently, China has stepped up to strengthen its position in the Bien Dong ( South China Sea) by taking advantage of the US Navy’s chaos due to aircraft carriers Ronald Reagan and Nimitz's getting Coronavirus infected to make noises . On April 2, in the Bien Dong Sea (South China Sea) - where the sovereignty dispute happened between China and Vietnam, Vietnamese fishing boat and Chinese maritime vessels collided and wrecked Vietnamese fishing boat. Vietnamese fishermen were detained (by China – said by translator) before being released.

Historical facts about the Hoang Sa (Paracel) and Truong Sa (Spratly) Islands

The Hoang Sa archipelago is 120 nautical miles from the east of Quang Ngai province, in central Vietnam. The Truong Sa is about 250 nautical miles from the east of Nha Trang city, Khanh Hoa province (Vietnam). These two archipelagos are the territory of Vietnam and Vietnam has claimed its sovereignty over these two archipelagos hundreds of years ago. In the ancient bibliographies of Vietnam also pointed out that these areas were the territories of Vietnam. In 1904, " Hoang Trieu truc tinh dia du toan do - Huang chao zhi sheng di yu quan tu (The Imperial dynasty central province region's whole map)", published in the end of the Qing dynasty (China) in 1904 did not indicate that the Hoang Sa and Truong Sa archipelagos were the territory of the Qing Dynasty. The evidence states clearly that according to Chinese history until 1904, China's southern territory only reached Hainan island. Vietnam's geography and ancient history books contain clear evidences of the establishment of the Hoang Sa team for the purpose of exploiting and managing these two archipelagos. From 1802 of the Nguyen Dynasty’s birth until the signing of the Treaty between France and Hue in 1884, the Nguyen Dynasty made every effort to uphold the sovereignty of the Hoang Sa and Truong Sa Islands. Under Vietnam's feudalism, the Hoang Sa team was sent periodically every 5-6 months each year to perform certain tasks in the archipelagos, which was the decisive evidence to assert Vietnam's sovereignty. The Chinese Qing Dynasty has never objected to Vietnam's sovereignty over the Hoang Sa and Truong Sa islands, as well as the above-mentioned exploitation. Therefore, the Hoang Sa and Truong Sa archipelagos in the Vietnamese territory is the assertion of scholars on international law.

The sovereignty of the Hoang Sa and Truong Sa Islands under the French colonial rule

After June 6, 1884 Treaty (Patenôtre Treaty) was signed, France represented the Vietnamese State in foreign affairs. Therefore, France replaced Vietnam in protecting sovereignty and territory.

This shows that Vietnam's sovereignty over the Hoang Sa and Truong Sa Islands during the French colonial period, France protested against the act of threatening Vietnam's sovereignty over these archipelagos. For example, on December 4, 1931 and April 24, 1932, France criticized Guangdong Province, China when it intended to exploit Guano on the Paracel Islands. On April 4, 1939, France objected when Japan intended to select a part of the Spratly Islands to grant autonomy.

Protect and exercise sovereignty over the Paracel and Spratly Islands after World War II

After World War II, France returned Indochina. In late 1946, France requested the contemporary ROC government to retreat from the Vietnam’s islands it illegally occupied. France regained control of the Hoang Sa and Truong Sa Islands, rebuilt the meteorological observatory and the radio station. On September 7, 1951, regarding the Peace Treaty with Japan, the Vietnamese Prime Minister attending the San Fracisco conference declared that the Hoang Sa and Truong Sa Islands had long been a territory of Vietnam and Vietnam asserted its rights over the Hoang Sa (Spratlys) and Truong Sa (Paracel) Islands. The statement did get No any objections that time. Currently, the Hoang Sa Islands belongs to Da Nang City, the Truong Sa Islands is the administrative region of Khanh Hoa province. Vietnam has issued a white paper on the Hoang Sa and Truong Sa Islands, two archipelagos which are inseparable “flesh and blood” territories from Vietnam, affirming that Vietnam has absolute sovereignty over these two archipelagos in accordance with the provisions of the International Law.

The successful settlement of sovereignty disputes in the Bien Dong Sea (South China Sea) with China is the most serious problem that Vietnam must face in the 21st century. The arbitral tribunal ruled on July 12 in 2016 that the "Nine-dash line" - the unilateral boundary set by China to assert sovereignty over the Bien Dong Sea (South China Sea), is not based on international law. It is certain to confirm that the Hoang Sa and Truong Sa Islands are Vietnamese territories. Based on ancient maps as well as historical documents on the management of these two archipelagos, Hoang Sa and Truong Sa are eligible to be confirmed as territories of Vietnam.

Standpoints of the countries concerning

vietnam owns sufficient evidences of its sovereignty over the paracel and spratly archipelagos
The satellite images released by The ImageSat International on May 13 show Chinese military aircraft parked on a runway in Vietnam's (Chu thap) Fiery Cross Reef  - Photo: TWITTER

Many major powers in the world are strengthening their military forces to seize interests in the Bien Dong Sea (South China Sea). Since the decision of the Arbitral Tribunal, all countries have endorsed the decision and urged China and related countries to resolve the dispute in accordance with the law. The US and Australia pledged plans to patrol and garrison their troops in the Bien Dong Sea (South China Sea), in cooperation with Japan, India ... to urge China to comply with the ruling. Russia has also deployed anti-submarine patrol fleets. The Japanese air force is located in the air of the Miyako Strait. The United States declares its readiness to station troops at any time in the Bien Dong Sea (South China Sea) and carries out large-scale training with diverse content such as responses in case of simulated war, air defense, and anti-submarine warfare. ... Since the decision of the Arbitral Tribunal, in the trend of strengthening military forces in the Bien Dong Sea (South China Sea), the competition between nations to protect their national interests has been intensified. China shows its ambition to expand territorial waters, countries in the Bien Dong Sea (South China Sea) region maintain their rights to islands and oceans. Meanwhile, the great powers want to see strategic interests in the Bien Dong Sea (South China Sea).

The dispute issue in the Bien Dong Sea (South China Sea) is a very sensitive international one. To prevent China from illegal occupying the Bien Dong Sea (South China Sea), the United States and Japan are expected to strengthen alliances, enhance economic cooperation as well as expand diplomatic relations with countries in the Bien Dong (South China Sea). On the contrary, China is expected to increase aid to countries in Southeast Asia, speeding up its diplomatic way. By means of sustainability and peace, Vietnam has maintained the sovereignty of the Hoang Sa and Truong Sa Islands since the 17th century, and Vietnam continues to adhere to the three principles stated at the G7 Ise summit. -Shima Summit opened on May 26, 2016 in Japan.

Regarding China's sovereignty claim, in January 2013, the Philippines sued China. Based on the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the Arbitration Council established under Annex VII of UNCLOS 1982 ruled on July 12, 2016 that the "Nine-dash Line" - the unilateral boundary line set by China issued to claim its sovereignty over the Bien Dong Sea (South China Sea) is not based on international law. Do not recognize artificial islands set up by China as "islands". Acknowledging the call of the Philippines: "Mischief Reef ...where China built artificial islands is a reef only emerging when there is a change of tide, so it cannot be considered territorial sea". This is the first time an international judicial ruling has been made on the issue of the Bien Dong Sea (South China Sea), where China strongly asserted its actual dominance by building artificial islands ... China also does not accept the decision of the Arbitral Tribunal despite the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea ratified in 1994. At the G7 summit opening on May 26, 2016 in Japan (G7 Ise- shima Summit), despite its "affirmation based on international law", "banning the use of force," and "resolving disputes in peace", China remains its stubborn as a mule.
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Translated by Tarah Nguyen

The ajudaily (Korea)